200-nautical-miles
Distance to the coast delimiting the exclusive economic zone of each coastal country.

Algal crest
External zone of the bank reef, where the sea breaks and a pad of calcareous algae grows.

Alia catamaran
Model of catamaran developed by FAO on the basis of a Western Samoa dugout model.

Atoll
Annular coral reef enclosing a lagoon which communicates or not with the open sea by one or more passes.

Autotrophic
Ability of an organism to nourish itself by utilizing inorganic material from the substrate and atmospheric gases to develop. Green plants and certain microorganisms are autotrophic.

Benthic and demersal zones
Seabed environments, from intertidal and infratidal zones (less than 10 m depth) to a 500 m deep zone.

Biocenose
Balanced association of animals and plants in a biotope.

Biotope
Independent vital space of variable size (often small) characterized by a unique ecology and the presence of the physicochemical conditions necessary for survival of the species constituting the biocenose.

Blackbirders
Smugglers of illegal alien Melanesian workers at the end of the nineteenth century, bound especially for Australian plantations.

Burgau
Common name of tropical univalve mother-of-pearl shells; their scientific name is Turbo marmoratus.

Cast net
Wide cone-shaped net ballasted with lead and retained by a line moored at its center. The net is cast from the shore over the fish.

Catch per unit effort
Catch by weight or number: the yield is expressed in terms of the catch achieved with a line in one a day (day-line).

Condominium
Sovereignty exerted jointly by two or several states on the same country (France and United Kingdom for Vanuatu before 1980).

Copra
Dried coconut meat from which oil is extracted.

Coral reef
Calcareous formation produced by the activity of various living organisms.

CPUE
Catch per unit effort.

Deep longline
Horizontal fishing line fitted with hooks and lying on the sea bottom.

Deep-sea fisheries
Fishing at open sea.

Deep-sea fishes
The term "deep-sea fish" refers to bottom-dwelling fish found in the 80-500 m depth layer along the outer-reef slopes.

Deep-sea fishing
Fishing by sinking a vertical line equipped with one or more hooks to catch fish on the sea bottom when the boat is anchored.

Ecological conditions
Conditions of the environment within which a natural resource lives and develops (elevation, topography, soil type, bioclimate, etc.).

EDF (European Development Fund)
The European Development Fund, an EEC body, funds economic development programmes in ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) states.

EEZ
Exclusive economic zone.

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
This refers to a complex of climatic anomalies whereby warm surface waters mask the usual increase in cold-water nutrient-rich (upwellings) along the oceanic coasts of Peru and Ecuador. This phenomenon occurs around Christmas time (El Niño for the "Christ Child" in Spanish), with adverse effects on fishing activities, and is more severe some years and associated with catastrophic seasonal flooding along the normally arid coast. The expression El Niño now indicates these exceptional years (referred to as ENSO years, e.g.1982-1983) which occur at irregular intervals (2- to 10 years) and are accompanied by significant changes in the oceanic circulation, wind conditions throughout the tropical Pacific region, with a consequent impact on weather patterns around the world.

Euphotic
The euphotic zone is the ocean layer close to the surface that receives enough light for photosynthesis to occur.

Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone, or 200-nautical-mile zone, where coastal states have sovereign rights over natural resources and certain economic activities according the Convention of the Law of the Sea promulgated by a UN conference in 1982.

Extension agents
Administrative staff in charge of applying government economic development decisions.

FAD
Fish aggregating devices.

FFA
Forum Fisheries Agency.

Fish aggregating devices
Floating objects, such as rafts, that are anchored at sea to attract fish and monitored by fishermen.

Fisheries potential
Quantity of fish that can be tapped without exhausting the resource.

Fishing pressure
Quantity of fish captured per hectare.

Fishing reels
Hand operated boat-mounted reels that serve to wind up the fishing line.

Food self-sufficiency
Ability of a population to fulfil its food needs by its own production.

Food chain
Transfers of matter and energy in the form of food between living organisms within an environment.

Fork length measurement
Length of fish measured from the front tip of the head to the fork of the tail.

Forum Fisheries Agency
Subdivision of the South Pacific Forum dealing with administrative aspects of fishing activities.

Fringing reefs
Coral reefs along the shore of the mainland, including a flat reef.

Gill net
Square net which is set vertically in the water.

Gyre
Large wind-driven swirls of oceanic water masses affecting large zones in the Pacific.

Harvey single-hull
Type of boat designed by FAO for small-scale fisheries.

High (volcanic) island
Islands formed by geologically recent eruptions over "hotspots" on the ocean floor.

Ichthyosarcotoxism
Commonly referred to as ciguatera or "itch", which is poisoning caused by a toxic substance produced by a unicellular organism, Gambierdiscus toxicus, found in the coral reefs. It is ingested by coral-grazing fish and transmitted to consumers of these fish. This toxin is concentrated along the food chain.

Intertidal and infratidal zones
The intertidal zone, between low tide and high tide, is concerned with the tidal movements. The infratidal zone is below the low tide line.

Island arc
Arc of volcanic islands formed by the subduction of oceanic plates.

Island wake
Upwelling of deep waters due to the meeting of oceanic currents with an island.

Isobath
Lines on a map connecting points of equal water depth.

ITCZ
Intertropical convergence zone.

Joint fisheries ventures
Companies comprising several fishing companies with shared control.

Joint venture
A business enterprise in which a small number of separate and independent participants share control.

Kava
Kava (Piper methysticum) is a traditional drink with calming properties and which is consumed according to ritual.

La Niña
Unlike the El Niño phenomenon, La Niña (the "little girl" in Spanish) refers to the occurrence of unusually cold ocean water in the same geographical area, i.e. along the Pacifique coast of South America and in the equatorial Pacific zone. This phenomenon is due to strengthening of the trade winds that increase the flow of colder water along the coast.

Lagoon
Area of marine water between the shore of the mainland and the fringing coral reef.

Land availability
Area of land which could potentially be cultivated.

Longline
Fishing tackle involving a horizontal line fit with hooks and held by floats.

Longliner
Boats using a trawl line for tuna fishing.

Low-lying island
Volcanic island of low altitude due to erosion processes.

Management and conservation of resources
To preserve a natural resource from abuse and to enforce a usage regulation to ensure the natural renewal of this resource.

Mangrove
Plant formations characteristic of river banks and coastlines in tropical areas. They form impenetrable tidal marine forests which attach their stilted roots in calm bays where mud and silt settle.

Master fishermen
Professional fishing specialists who provide training for novice fishermen.

Mean annual increase
Annual increase of the population balanced over a 10-year period.

Melanesian Shell Products
Also called MSP, this mother-of-pearl processing company belonged to the Government of Vanuatu.

Mesoplankton
Planktonic organism greater than 100 microns in size.

Migratory pelagic species
Fish that move about considerably in deep water, far from the coast.

Minimum shell harvest size
Minimal catch size whereby only sexually mature individuals are fished, thus preserving the juveniles.

Monofilament line
Vertical fishing line with one filament.

Monoxyle dugout
Dugouts constructed from a single trunk, contrary to dugouts that are made from several elements like catamarans.

Mother-of-pearl pawns
Pieces cut from mother-of-pearl shells and used for manufacturing buttons.

MSP
Melanesian Shell Products.

Ni-Vanuatu
Name of inhabitants of Vanuatu.

Nycthemeral
Physiological unit of time, one 24 hour cycle comprising one day and one night.

Oceanic trench
Also called a deep-sea trench, which is a long and narrow depression along the ocean bottom that can exceed 1 000 m in depth (maximum oceanic depths from approximately 7 300 to more than 11 000 m [24 000 to 36 000 feet]).

Oligotrophic
Oligotrophic waters are nutrient poor.

Pacific Community
New denomination (since 1998) of the South Pacific Commission.

PC
Pacific Community.

Pelagic species
Fish living in deep water, relatively close to the ocean surface.

Pelagic zone
The open sea.

Phanerogam beds
Seagrass that grows on sandy beds of flat reefs.

Photosynthesis
Process whereby organic matter is produced from carbon dioxide in air fixed by chlorophyl of plants and some bacteria, using sunlight as energy source.

Price compensation mechanism
Economic process that involves setting the price of basic commodities independently of the laws of supply and demand.

Protein
85 g of protein is obtained by consuming 1 kg of reef fish.

Protein ration
Minimum food intake to ensure public health.

Red snapper
Demersal fish that thrive over the external reef slope, between 50 and 600 m in depth.

Reef flat
Flat shallow water area, of coral or not, along the coastline that is a popular site for shore fishing and spear fishing.

Reef slope
External slope of fringing reefs or reef-barriers.

Sandalwood harvesters
Sandalwood smugglers. Name also given to the boats used for the collection and transport of this wood. This smuggling grew in this Pacific area from 1825 to1865, and led to the recruitment of native workers to cut and haul the sandalwood.

Scattered archipelagos
Groups of islands whose maritime area is 20- to 900- fold greater the land area.

SEC
South equatorial current.

SECC
South equatorial counter current.

South equatorial current
Oceanic current flowing from east to west at latitudes between 10oS and 15oS (SEC).

South Pacific Commission
Organization of representatives of the governments of 25 nations or territories, set up to advise those governments on economic, social and health matters affecting island territories in the South Pacific administered by them.

South Pacific Fishing Company
Also called SPFC, it is a Japanese fishing company which set up a joint venture with Vanuatu to establish a tuna base in the archipelago.

South Pacific Forum
Regional organization representing the economic and political interests of the states of South Pacific states.

Southern equatorial counter current
Oceanic current flowing from west to east at latitudes between 5oS and 10oS (SECC).

Spat
Swimming larvae of oysters (or mussels), before their fixation to a solid substrate.

Spat seeding on coral reefs
Juvenile mother-of-pearl shells deposited on reefs with the aim of restocking the natural environment.

SPC
South Pacific Commission.

SPCZ
South Pacific convergence zone.

SPFC
South Pacific Fishing Company.

Spur-rill zone
Area corresponding to the first decline of the reef slope.

Stabex funding
STABEX funds are granted by EU in ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) states to subsidize local production and help maintain prices at world market levels.

Temperature and salinity gradients
Spatial variations in salinity and temperature in the ocean.

The intertropical convergence zone
Belt of converging trade winds near the Equator (about 5oN) (ITCZ).

The South Pacific convergence zone
Belt of converging south Pacific trade winds extending from Papua New Guinea to French Polynesia along a NW-SE axis (SPCZ).

Thermocline
Oceanic water layer in which temperature decreases rapidly with increasing depth. This phenomenon is accompanied by an increase in the nitrate concentration (nitracline) and by an increase in salinity.

Trade wind
Easterly tropical wind (north-easterly or south-easterly).

Trochus
Trochus niloticus shells found in tropical waters and fished for their mother-of-pearl.

Trochus processing activities
Activity which involves cleaning and polishing trochus shells.

Trolling
Fishing by dragging a line fitted with one or more hooks behind the boat.

Unit of effort
Quantitatively minimal and standard fishing effort. In this study, the number of days-lines represented the unit of effort, i.e. the number of lines multiplied by the days spent fishing.

Upwelling
Upflow of deep colder and nutrient-richer water.

Vatu
Currency of Vanuatu.

Vegetable gardens
Garden with crops that are grown for self-consumption and not marketed.

Village household
Population unit considered for the census, represented by a family within a village.